|
1 minute reading

Conflicts of interest between man are resolved by the recourse to violence

Conflicts of interest between man are resolved by the recourse to violence Conflicts of interest between man are resolved by the recourse to violence
Source: Artist unknnow via eBAy
Einstein on Peace
From a book
Einstein on Peace
Font size
A
12 24 17
A

In 1932, Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud exchange correspondences about human nature and war. Freud writes:

Conflicts of interest between man and man are resolved, in principle, by the recourse to violence. It is the same in the animal kingdom, from which man cannot claim exclusion; nevertheless, men are also prone to conflicts of opinion, touching, on occasion, the loftiest peaks of abstract thought, which seem to call for settlement by quite another method. This refinement is, however, a late development. To start with, group force was the factor which, in small communities, decided points of ownership and the question which man’s will was to prevail. Very soon physical force was implemented, then replaced, by the use of various adjuncts; he proved the victor whose weapon was the better, or handled the more skillfully. Now, for the first time, with the coming of weapons, superior brains began to oust brute force, but the object of the conflict remained the same: one party was to be constrained, by the injury done him or impairment of his strength, to retract a claim or a refusal. This end is most effectively gained when the opponent is definitely put out of action — in other words, is killed. This procedure has two advantages: the enemy cannot renew hostilities, and, secondly, his fate deters others from following his example. Moreover, the slaughter of a foe gratifies an instinctive craving. … However, another consideration may be set off against this will to kill: the possibility of using an enemy for servile tasks if his spirit be broken and his life spared. Here violence finds an outlet not in slaughter but in subjugation. Hence springs the practice of giving quarter; but the victor, having from now on to reckon with the craving for revenge that rankles in his victim, forfeits to some extent his personal security.

-----

Source :  Why War: Einstein and Freud’s Little-Known Correspondence on Violence, Peace, and Human Nature, Brainpickings

Comments are small addendum used to provided quick feedback. They are intentionally limited in size and formatting.


Please enter a value.

Your example


Please enter a value.
Similar articles
Category:
History
6 minutes reading

Aware that we are living in the midst of a technological revolution, we are becoming increasingly concerned with its meaning ...

| Approved
Categories:
Culture
1 minute reading

You are too complex to understand yourself. It takes careful observation, and education, and reflection, and communication with others, just ...

| Approved
Category:
Society
Ads that provoke are the ones you remember Ads that provoke are the ones you remember
American Apparel Ad

When I design online ads for American Apparel, I almost always look for an angle that will provoke. Outrage, self-righteousness, and titillation all work equally well. Naturally, the sexy ones are probably those you remember most, but the formula worked for all types of images. Photos of kids dressed up like adults, dogs wearing clothes, ad copy that didn’t make any sense—all high-valence, viral images. If I could generate a reaction, I could propel the ad from being something I had to pay for people to see (by buying ad inventory) to something people would gladly post on the front page of their highly trafficked websites.

| Approved
Category:
People
1 minute reading

The Alchemist picked up a book that someone in the caravan had brought. Leafing through the pages, he found a ...

| Approved
Category:
People
All things beautiful have an element of strangeness
All things beautiful have an element of strangeness
GIF
Club Innovation & culture France

Beauty always has an element of strangeness. I do not mean a deliberate cold form of strangeness, for in that case it would be a monstrous thing that had jumped the rails of life. But I do mean that it always contains a certain degree of strangeness, of simple, unintended, unconscious strangeness, and that this form of strangeness is what gives it the right to be called beauty. It is its hallmark, its special characteristic. Reverse the proposition and try to imagine a commonplace beauty! (…) This element of strangeness which constitutes and defines individuality, without which there is no beauty, plays in art (and may the precision of this comparison excuse its triviality) the role of taste or flavouring in cookery; if the individual usefulness or the degree of nutritious value they contain be excepted, viands differ from each other only by the idea they reveal to the tongue.

| Approved
Row:Column:
×
Row:Column:
×