Four metaphors can be used to think about brands: brands as a footprint, brand as a partner, brand a virality engine, and brand as cultural icons
Mark as a mental imprint: Tide, based on the declination of the concept of impeccability & spotless belongs to this category,
Brand partner: Gatorade, which is positioned as athletes’ partners,
Viral brand: the product takes a peripheral dimension. Example: Budweiser with his "wasuup" campaign.
Brand as cultural icon: Strong identification mirrors like Coca-Cola, Nike or Apple.
Source and adaptation :
Benoît Heiburnn, La marque, PUF, collection Que sais-je, 2007 – Adapted from D. Holt, How brands becomes Icons, The Principle of Culutral Branding, Harvard Bsusiness School Press, 2004
No matter what your product is, you are ultimately in the education business. Your customers need to be constantly educated about the many advantages of doing business with you, trained to use your products more effectively, and taught how to make never-ending improvement in their lives.
As customers, what we crave more than the commodity we think we are paying for is to be understood.
What we want more than a reliable ride to our destination, a comfortable bed for the night, or even a book we can get our teeth into, is to really be seen.
What we want more than responsive organizations is personal relevance.
The value isn't just in the data that businesses collect. What counts is how they use it to make our lives better.
I have great respect for anyone who can invent a clever name that suggests something about the brand. Some of my favorite coined names are Dreamery, Groupon, Pictionary, Cinnabon, Chillow, Pinterest, Chuggemaut, and San Franpsycho. (…) It's important to make sure your name is meaningful to potential customers, not just to you.
In the 1960s, sociologist William McPhee coined the notion of "double jeopardy", to describe people's sympathy and tendencies toward certain behaviors.
Its application to marketing is due to the statistician Andrew Ehrenberg who made the "double jeopardy" concept an empirical law according to which brands with lower market shares suffer from both low purchases and low brand loyalty.
In other words, less popular brands not only have fewer buyers, but also have fewer loyal customers compared to the dominant popular brands in the market. According to the concept of "double jeopardy", a dominant brand therefore has the highest percentage of purchase and a greater consumer loyalty to its brand. What is for the popular brand a double advantage, has a negative consequence for less popular brands: it is difficult for them to retain their customers and increase their sales because it is not easy to convince buyers that the quality of a product less sold, is of better quality than a brand recognized by all.