Four metaphors can be used to think about brands: brands as a footprint, brand as a partner, brand a virality engine, and brand as cultural icons
Mark as a mental imprint: Tide, based on the declination of the concept of impeccability & spotless belongs to this category,
Brand partner: Gatorade, which is positioned as athletes’ partners,
Viral brand: the product takes a peripheral dimension. Example: Budweiser with his "wasuup" campaign.
Brand as cultural icon: Strong identification mirrors like Coca-Cola, Nike or Apple.
Source and adaptation :
Benoît Heiburnn, La marque, PUF, collection Que sais-je, 2007 – Adapted from D. Holt, How brands becomes Icons, The Principle of Culutral Branding, Harvard Bsusiness School Press, 2004
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