[Toilet Assumption] Social unpleasantness, once flushed out of sight, does not cease to exist
Our ideas about institutionalizing the aged, psychotic, retarded, infirm are based on a pattern of thought that we might call the Toilet Assumption—the notion that unwanted matter, unwanted difficulties, unwanted complexities and obstacles will disappear if they're removed from our immediate field of vision. We don't connect the trash we throw from the car window with the trash in our streets, and we assume that replacing old buildings with new expensive ones will alleviate poverty in the slums. We throw the aged and psychotic into institutional holes where they cannot be seen. Our approach to social problems is to decrease their visibility: out of sight, out of mind. This is the real foundation of racial segregation, especially its most extreme case, the Indian "reservation." The result of our social efforts has been to remove the underlying problems of our society farther and farther from daily experience and daily consciousness, and hence to decrease, in the mass of the population, the knowledge, skill, and motivation necessary to deal with them.
When these discarded problems rise to the surface again—a riot, a protest, an exposé in the mass media—we react as if a sewer had backed up. We are shocked, disgusted, and angered, and immediately call for the emergency plumber (the special commission, the crash program) to ensure that the problem is once again removed from consciousness.
The Toilet Assumption isn't just a facetious metaphor. Prior to the widespread use of the flush toilet all of humanity was daily confronted with the immediate reality of human waste and its disposal. They knew where it was and how it got there. Nothing miraculously vanished. Excrement was conspicuously present in the outhouse or chamber pot, and the slops that went out the window went noticeably into the street. The most aristocratic Victorian ladies strolling in fashionable city parks thought nothing of retiring to the bushes to relieve themselves. Similarly, garbage did not disappear down a disposal unit—it remained nearby.
In an event such as the Soccer World Cup, the phenomenon of increased identification with the team and greater national pride has been referred to as the “feel-good effect at mega sports events“. Such events facilitate social connections and have an influence on our emotions: they are sources of joy and frustration, anger and pride, depression and enthusiasm; and ultimately affect what psychologist call the “subjective well-being” – which is, as a key concept in positive psychology, our own appreciation of one’s life in global terms.
A company shouldn’t get addicted to being shiny, because shiny doesn’t last.
(...) This line of thought demonstrates a real struggle to identify with black humanity in any conceivable way. To them we ...
It is those who are successful, in other words, who are most likely to be given the kinds of special opportunities that lead to further success. It’s the rich who get the biggest tax breaks. It’s the best students who get the best teaching and most attention. And it’s the biggest nine- and ten-year-olds who get the most coaching and practice. Success is the result of what sociologists like to call “accumulative advantage".