When someone is a clueless about a topic, use analogies
A great way to avoid useless accuracy, and to dodge the Curse of Knowledge (i.e.cognitive bias that occurs when an individual, communicating with other individuals, unknowingly assumes that the others have the background to understand), is to use analogies. Analogies derive their power from schemas: A pomelo is like a grapefruit. A good news story is structured like an inverted pyramid. Skin damage is like aging. Analogies make it possible to understand a compact message because they invoke concepts that you already know.
According to Edward T. Hall, the environment becomes a dimension of culture, it incorporates manifestations related to the concept of body, space and sensation. The researcher defines this concept by the notion of proxemics, a scientific discipline studying the signifying organization of space and the study of the relative positions of interlocutors. The space of each individual is composed of four spheres revolving around the individual:
1 ° The intimate sphere is 45 cm in diameter around the individual: it implies physical involvement;
2 ° The personal sphere is measured between 45 cm and 1m35 around the individual: this distance is to be found during a particular conversation;
3 ° The social sphere is measured between 1.20m and 3.70m around the individual: it is the distance observed during friendly and professional interactions;
4 ° The public sphere is measured at a distance equal to or greater than 3,70m around the individual: it is the sphere dedicated to exchanges with a group.
The closest surface to the individual is an emotionally strong area that is usually referred to as the individual security perimeter. The size of this space varies according to the cultures. The social status of the interlocutor is also to be considered: one is closer to a peer than a superior or a subordinate. There is therefore a link between spatial distance and social distance.
The person who does the most talking and the person who is the most successful are rarely the same person. Almost without exception, the more successful the person, the more he practices conversation generosity, that is, he encourages the other person to talk about himself, his views, his accomplishments, his family, his job, his problems.
Those who use foul language on social networks (such as Twitter) are sending an expensive signal that they are free—and, ironically, competent. You don’t signal competence if you don’t take risks for it—there are few such low-risk strategies. So cursing today is a status symbol, just as oligarchs in Moscow wear blue jeans at special events to signal their power
Doctor in Philosophy and anthropologist Edward T. Hall has dedicated his life to research in cultural perception of space, intercultural communication techniques (which he will then expand to business world) and proxemics, this branch of knowledge which studies the physical distance between people during an interaction.
In 1959 he introduced the concept of silent language in his book The silent language. He observed that culture is a non-verbal communication and it is culture which builds a silent link between individuals, but also that this same silent language is responsible for raising barriers between individuals of different nationalities.
Hall then dissect intercultural communication via its concept of "major triad". According to him, this is the backbone of all cultures:
- The formal is what is lived daily by the individual, known and perfectly mastered,
- The informal is linked to a specific practice, specific to rare, sometimes unknown and uncontrolled situations
- The technique is the scientific approach of a theme, acquired through the explicit communication
What Hall did for us in 1959 is to study the roots of what we today call a "cultural shock": the feeling that permeates us when faced with a different culture. This feeling where it seems that people ...
If everyone is thinking alike, then somebody isn’t thinking.